• Contrasts and Contradictions: A sharp contrast between what we would expect and what we observe the character doing; behavior contradicts previous behavior or established patterns. It also contrasts between characters or situations.


    Again and Again: Events, images, or particular words that recur over a portion of the novel


    Memory Moment: A recollection by a character that interrupts the forward progress of the story


    Aha Moment: A character’s realization of something that shifts his actions or understanding of himself, others, or the world around him.


    Tough Questions: Questions a character raises that reveal his/her inner struggles


    Words of the Wiser: The advice or insight a wiser character--usually older--offers about life to the main character